La mejor defensa es un buen ataque, dicen los estrategas, aunque a veces es preferible salir corriendo o simplemente no aparecer por el lugar del conflicto. Pero cuando ya se está dentro lo importante es saber salir airoso y para eso es necesario tener unos mínimos conocimiento de cómo actuar para evitar el enfrentamiento y de cómo actuar para afrontarlo y salir de la escena.

SAN FERNANDO INFORMACION

Esta semana se han reunido abogados, fiscales y jueces para examinar los diez años de la Ley de Violencia de Género, que como ustedes recordarán, ya la examinaba en este periódico el magistrado Juan José Parra Calderón, entonces todavía juez decano de los Juzgados de Jerez y especialista en violencia de género.

Esta vez hemos ido a hablar con José Carlos Vera Jiménez, criminólogo e instructor universitario de defensa personal, quien se dedica a preparar a las mujeres, en el caso específico de la violencia de género, para afrontar ese momento clave en el que es agredida. O sea, el tiempo anterior a la intervención de los efectivos que pone la Ley para garantizar su integridad. Cuando está sola frente al agresor y todo depende de que puede autodefenderse.

¿Pero qué preparación necesita una mujer, haya presentado una denuncia o no y esté o no dentro del sistema de protección que le pone la ley a su disposición? Evidentemente y en este caso, se trata de aprender defensa personal, pero a la vez a conocer a un agresor, saber anticiparse a sus acciones, conocer cuáles son los lugares más peligrosos y en general todo lo que la ayude a prevenir el encuentro o a afrontarlo.

Los primeros beneficios de esta preparación son automáticos. El simple hecho de que la mujer sea consciente de que está preparada para defenderse le proporciona la seguridad que necesita para afrontar el hecho violento con la suficiente frialdad para actuar. Una frialdad que es una ventaja sobre el agresor y que le permite adivinar su siguiente movimiento.

Luego, cuando llega la agresión es el momento de poner en práctica sus conocimientos de defensa personal, ese movimiento evasivo que le permita evitar el golpe en parte del cuerpo más vulnerable y huir, porque hay que partir de la base de que el objetivo es salir de la escena, no quedarse ante un enemigo que físicamente es más fuerte y al que no se le pueden dar oportunidades de enmendar el fallo.

La legítima defensa
“Todo lo que aprende se hace amparado en la legítima defensa y en unos estudios realizados sobre cómo te puedes defender sin causar lesión al agresor. Es cubrir esa laguna que queda entre la agresión y la respuesta de la Policía y la protección jurídica. No se trata de que las víctimas se defiendan solas, sino de que le den tiempo a la Policía a llegar”.

En esa preparación entra saber cuáles son los días más probables en los que puede sufrir una agresión, que coinciden con el día que pone la denuncia o los días posteriores. Cuáles son los lugares en los que el agresor va a buscarla… y a partir de ahí establecer unos mecanismos que cambien la rutina que conoce el agresor y en la que se va a basar para encontrar a la víctima.

Pero la defensa personal no es sólo para las mujeres. Es para todo el mundo y entendiéndola como defensa, porque su uso es peligroso cuando las cosas se salen de los cauces normales.

La persona que sabe defenderse de una forma sistemática, mediante un aprendizaje reglado, obtiene la misma ventaja que se aplicaba a la mujer. El hecho de saber de su capacidad para defenderse ya supone una tranquilidad que le proporcionará su principal arma, el control sobre sí mismo y por ende, el uso  de la violencia proporcional a la agresión.

Ahí es tajante José Carlos Vera. La proporcionalidad es la clave para no evitar un problema y entrar en otro peor, porque el uso desproporcionado de la violencia contra otra persona, aunque sea en legítima defensa, tiene sus riesgos.

Ahí sale el dicho del ladrón que entra en casa ajena y el dueño de la casa puede terminar en la cárcel si el altercado trasciende de la propia defensa. Y es que si a un agresor se le causan daños irreparables será quien se ha defendido el que se siente en el banquillo en aras de esa proporcionalidad que contempla la Ley.

O dicho de otra manera, que casi no se puede matar a quien intenta matarte porque mejor no fiarse de lo que puede ocurrir en un juicio y de la habilidad del abogado contrario.

¿Pero sirve la defensa personal o las artes marciales sólo para defenderse? Así debe de ser. Pero practicar un deporte de contacto puede servir también para encauzar conductas violentas, como si fuera el pitorrito de la olla exprés, por poner un ejemplo, que impide que la olla explote.

José Carlos Vera se refiere a muchos casos de jóvenes conflictivos en los colegios que han podido reconducir su carácter violento con la práctica de deportes de contacto, donde no sólo aprenden esa proporcionalidad sino unas reglas que influyen decisivamente en su comportamiento en cualquier ocasión.

Aunque también sería bueno que los maestros y profesores aprendieran defensa personal. Porque un niño de 17 años, no es un niño.

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